Tetrahedron Arrays

Hemispherical coverage for multi-intruder detection and mitigation

Protection of military and civilian assets from multiple simultaneous threats is vital.  Current systems may not be able to handle a multiple simultaneous threat environment, resulting in insufficient power delivered to mitigate the threats.  With a single receive (Rx) tetrahedron multi-beam phased array and one or more multi-beam transmit (Tx) units, hemispherical coverage and simultaneous threat mitigation can be performed.


Our patent-pending tetrahedron arraying technology can provide strategic advantages over a wide range of missions

  • EW radar system
  • ECM radar system
  • Radar for low-profile surveillance
  • Powerful SIGINT system
  • Omni-directional receiver with high gain

Our notional tetrahedron system consists of receive (Rx) and transmit (Tx) phased arrays embedded onto the three faces of a tetrahedral structure. They are about 1m3 at Ku-band and therefore portable.

With just a single Rx SIGINT tetrahedron, nearly comprehensive upper hemisphere signal coverage over at least an octave bandwidth results.  This is due to the shape of the unit, the choice and layout of the elements and the beamforming scheme.  

Because of the hemispherical coverage of the SIGINT unit, systems can be configured for a variety of missions from low-profile, radar surveillance to powerful EW threat mitigation. In the case of a cyber disruption mission, the Tx units would use the information passed to them from the SIGINT receive unit to respond to tens of simultaneous attacks.

The tetrahedrons units consist of 3-sided phased arrays themselves.  For more EIRP on a target, additional tetrahedrons can be arrayed together, with maximum EIRP increasing as the number of tetrahedrons squared.  Fixed installations as well as quick deployable (e.g. on a trailer bed) are feasible.

The Rx and Tx units along with specialized hardware and advanced signal processing algorithms can be configured to meet challenging mission requirements.  Such a system has strategic advantages over traditional solutions for surveillance, EW and ECM missions.

In SIGINT, EW, and ECM modes, the Rx tetrahedron output SNR is proportional to the number of receive elements, N.  However, in EW and ECM modes, power on the target increases as M2N2 where M is the number of transmit elements and N is the number of receive elements.  If the number of elements on both the Rx and Tx units is the same, then the power on the target increases as N4, up to the level of HPA saturation. 

Our design provides nearly constant gain scan over a hemisphere, and has a bandwidth of at least an octave, compared with about 20% bandwidth of a customary phased array


  • Nearly constant gain over a hemisphere of coverage
  • More than an octave bandwidth frequency range
  • A single low profile, powerful, SIGINT unit with upper hemispherical coverage
  • One or more tetrahedral transmit unit(s) for instantaneous, simultaneous threat mitigation
  • Configurable for many missions including radar surveillance operations, EW and ECM
  • Power on the target increases as T2 where T is the number of transmit tetrahedrons
  • Capable of ISAR imaging of targets
  • Tx and Rx can be combined into a single tetrahedron for radar applications


In this notional array set-up, three transmit units each consisting of 3-sided phased arrays, are themselves arrayed.  Each time the number of Tx units is doubled the EIRP increases by 6dB.  So, for 3 units, 9.5dB increase results.  The Rx unit in the distance is performing hemispherical SIGINT operations.  In real-time, the Tx units use that data to mitigate signal threats.

Receive tetrahedron unit

The Rx unit has properties that traditional SIGINT phased array designs do not.  For the detection and angle-of-arrival (AOA) process, traditionally multiple receive antennas with limited field of view were needed.  This system uses just one Rx tetrahedron providing uniform hemispherical coverage.  The number of elements on each of the three faces is determined by sensitivity for detection of the weakest threat signal (SNR).   By design, the SIGINT receive array can address many incoming threats simultaneously.  With multiple independently steerable beams, the SIGINT tetrahedron continuously scans the hemisphere.  Signals are detected, then tracked, and their angle of arrival determined.  Other beams continue scanning for new threats.

Transmit tetrahedron unit(s)

The transmit units also provide hemispherical beam coverage at electronic speeds.  Information from the SIGINT unit is passed to the transmit tetrahedron(s) for electronic pointing and threat mitigation.  The mitigation is dependent on the mission.  For instance, for an EW mission, energy from the Tx units can disable or interfere with the threat.


  • Provides the ability to disable sensitive electronics for EW missions
  • Provides an ECM response to a radar threat through the radar sidelobes
  • Accommodates unknown center frequency
  • Wideband (>100MHz instantaneous; 2:1 RF frequency coverage range)
  • Low profile, hidden, remote installation possible
  • Detect threats and respond within 1st pulse
  • Constant gain, hemispherical coverage SIGINT Rx tetrahedron and Tx tetrahedrons
  • Expandable for weaker signals, greater range or more targets